Kickers notwithstanding, football players tend to be above average in weight and body mass index, or BMI. Linemen, in particular, are far above average in both categories. The ideal weight and BMI for an individual player depends on several factors, including his position and his exact responsibilities under a particular team¡¯s style of offense or defense.
Linemen engage in a type of hand-to-hand combat on almost every play, and size can be a key factor in who wins most of those battles. As a result, weight and BMI figures that wouldn¡¯t be tolerated at other positions are valued in linemen. The heaviest NFL players are nose tackles, who have an average BMI of about 40.50. Defensive ends, who need some speed to rush the quarterback, are much lighter with a typical BMI of 33.83. In college, Division I-A defensive linemen have a typical weight of about 250 pounds and a BMI of 31.2. On average, college offensive linemen have average weights of about 275 and a BMI of 34.4.
Wide receivers and defensive backs are typically judged on speed and quickness. NFL wide receivers have a typical BMI of 26.61, while the cornerbacks who oppose them are almost identical at 26.58. Division I-A college receivers and defensive backs both average about 185 pounds. The receivers tend to be taller, so their average BMI is about 23.8, while defensive backs have a typical BMI of 25.1.
Linebackers must fend off linemen on some plays, and chase down runners or receivers on others. Likewise, tight ends have some blocking responsibilities, but also run pass routes. Neither has to be as large as a lineman or fast as a back. The average college linebacker weighs about 220 pounds and has a BMI of 28.2. At the NFL level, that BMI goes up to about 31.34. College tight ends weigh around 240 pounds with a typical BMI of 29.2. NFL tight ends have an average BMI of about 30.62.
The size of running backs can vary, depending on their responsibilities. A small runner can rely on speed and quickness, while a fullback whose main job is blocking will be much larger. On average, an NFL running back has a BMI of 30.98, while college running backs weigh 210 pounds with a BMI of 28.5. Likewise, quarterbacks who stay in the pocket and throw — such as 6 foot 5, 241-pound Ben Roethlisberger — can be very large. Running quarterbacks can be much smaller, like 2014 Super Bowl champ Russell Wilson, who is 5-11 and weighs just 206. An average NFL quarterback has a BMI of 27.78, while the number falls to 25 in college, where quarterbacks weigh about 200 pounds.
Football plays are not designed to be easily read — if you can read them in the stands or in front of the TV, so can the defense. Teams that provide obvious clues to their plays end up struggling for yardage, and the offensive coordinator¡¯s job ends up on the line. Shrewd quarterbacks such as Peyton Manning, who can read the defensive alignment well, change the play with an audible before the snap to further disguise their intentions. Still, experienced analysts of the gridiron do share clues to help you read the plays during a game.
Watch the five offensive linemen — the center and the pairs of tackles and guards — at the moment the center snaps the ball. If they all stand straight up at the snap, the quarterback is going to pass, advises Mark Oristano in ¡°A Sportscaster¡¯s Guide to Watching Football.¡± If the offensive linemen shove forward across the line of scrimmage, a run will follow. The reason behind the different stances is simple; If an offensive lineman moves across the line of scrimmage during a pass play, a penalty for ineligible man downfield follows.
Follow visually the guards who flank the center if the linemen blast forward across the line of scrimmage, signaling a running play. Nine times out of 10 they will lead your eyes to the point of attack, namely where the ball is going, Oristano states. You¡¯ll find where the running back is headed before he gets there — around the same time the defense does.
Look for a spread formation, with three or more receivers lined up wide or to one side in what is called the ¡°trips right¡± or ¡°trips left¡± formation, as a clue that passing play is imminent. A closely bunched formation, with extra blockers creating a fortress around the ball, indicates a quarterback sneak or attempted run for short yardage, most likely by the fullback.
Regard with skepticism movements of linebackers up to line of scrimmage. They are likely faking a blitz and may drop back to their coverage areas. Watch instead the safety who moves up from a deep spot to about 6 yards off the line of scrimmage. Just before the snap, he may start a full-tilt blitz designed to cross the line of scrimmage just after the center delivers the ball to the quarterback.
Study the running back¡¯s eyes just before the snap if a camera provides this shot. Before the ball arrives, he scans the defense from left to right and back again, looking at its alignment. If he inadvertently stares at the point of attack, the middle linebacker may read this and call out to his teammates the gap the back plans to hit.
Watch for the quarterback to react to a blitz by linebackers or safeties by trying to throw a quick pass, designed to avoid the sack, to a receiver who slips into the area vacated by the blitzer.
Frequently noted benefits of kids’ involvement in sports and physical education include improved fitness and lower risk of obesity. Although not mentioned as often, research increasingly points to academic benefits for kids who have some regular physical activity. Additionally, it’s important to note that this advantage is not limited to kids taking part in organized, competitive sports.
Howell Wechsler, director of the Division of Adolescent and School Health for the Centers for Disease Control, reviewed 50 studies that examined the effect of school-based physical activity on academic performance and discovered that half of the studies showed positive associations and virtually none of the research demonstrated any negative impact. Multiple studies demonstrated that even relatively short spans of physical activity helped increase the duration and intensity of concentration following such activities, including those in which the students never left the classroom.
A study by James Pivarnik and colleagues at the American College of Sports Medicine discovered that middle-school students who performed best on fitness tests — gauging aerobic capacity, strength, endurance and body composition — also performed better academically. The study, which included 317 students, showed that the fittest kids scored nearly 30 percent higher on standardized tests than the least-fit group. Moreover, the less-fit students received grades in their core subjects that were 13 percent to 20 percent lower than their fitter classmates.
Writing on the website Oregon Live.com, Wendy Owen observes that students who play on sports teams learn leadership skills, responsibility, discipline and time management skills that carry over into the classroom. She quotes high school football player Zack Hickman, who points out that his sport requires to him to use his head and demands that he’s always learning from his experiences on the field — feeding expectations and habits in school.
For some students, sports can provide motivation for improved academic performance. Tom Welter, executive director of the Oregon School Activities Association, concedes that not all athletes are natural students; however, the grade requirements to stay eligible and play the sport they love drives them to overcome obstacles in the classroom and improve performance, establishing a work ethic that can serve them well for as long as they remain in an academic setting.
Playing zone defense in football requires players to patrol a certain area of the field and cover any offensive player that comes into that zone. In terms of playing zone defense for 7-on-7 flag football, it’s possible to successfully apply several schemes from standard, 11-man football. For example, depending on how many people are allowed to rush the quarterback under the rules, the same type of defense can be played in flag football that many NFL teams employ.
The cover 2 defense in the NFL requires four defensive linemen to rush the quarterback while the other seven defensive players play zone coverage. For 7-on-7 flag football, apply the same principles if you wish to play a safe zone and not rush the quarterback. With seven players in the cover 2 defense, five defenders should each have a zone that covers throws within 5 to 15 yards of the line of scrimmage. Two players should cover the zone near the sidelines while the other three cover zones across the middle of the field.
The two deep defenders in cover 2 defenses should cover large zones that are deeper than the five front defenders. Essentially, the safety¡¯s job should be to cut the field in half, with one safety playing a large zone on the deep right side of the field and the other safety covering the entire deep left side of the field. If the offensive team sends more than two players deep, the middle linebacker from the front five defenders should follow the middle receiver deep and allow the safeties to cover the other two players.
With all seven defenders in coverage, the opposing quarterback must be extremely accurate in order to find holes in the zone coverage and make a completion. The cover 2 defense suffocates the intermediate passing game and forces the quarterback to make low-percentage throws deep or short passes toward the sideline. Therefore, the goal of the zone defense should be to force the players into the middle of the field where other defenders can help.
Depending on the rules in your flag football league, you might have to blitz some of the five players covering the short part of the field. Use two deep cover players for the deep part of the field, with three defenders playing in three zones short and two players rushing the quarterback. This strategy forces the quarterback to throw the ball deep, which is difficult because of the two pass rushers.
You may have a fractured foot bone without being aware of it. Pain and swelling along with bruising are the most common signs to look out for. Home remedies offer natural alternatives to return your foot to a functioning, pain-free level. Reducing your pain, inflammation and bleeding play important roles in treating foot bone fractures. Check with your doctor first to be sure the treatment is appropriate for your individual situation and state of health.
Resting your injured foot needs to be your No. 1 priority, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. According to the Academy, rest is the primary treatment for foot fractures. Give your foot a break from whatever activity caused the fracture for at least three to four weeks. Avoid any activity that causes foot pain. Resting involves immobilizing your injured foot and not placing any weight on the area. Decreasing your foot’s loading forces plays an essential role in treating your foot fracture, according to the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Not putting any weight on your foot allows the affected bones a chance to begin the healing process. Harsh movements can prolong your recovery process and increase bleeding, according to the Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma.
Elevation plays a key role in any home remedy program involving fractures, including fractured foot bones. Elevation involves lifting your injured leg so your foot is above heart level. Elevating your leg serves two purposes, according to the physical therapy firm Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma. Elevation helps return blood to your heart and decreases bleeding. Start elevating your leg while lying in bed or on a sofa by placing your foot onto a pillow or pile of pillows. Put enough pillows underneath your foot and calf area to lift your leg to the appropriate height.
You should apply ice as soon as you suspect fractured foot bones, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Applying either an ice pack or crushed ice to the affected area helps reduce swelling. Crushed ice conforms to areas easier than ice packs. Avoid putting ice directly on your skin. Wrapping the ice in a towel prior to applying it to your foot will help prevent ice burn. Do not apply ice for longer than 20 minutes at a time. Use ice as a home remedy throughout the day.
Once you can place weight onto your foot, using appropriate footwear plays an important role in successfully treating your foot area. Start wearing a shoe with a wide sole, according to the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Buy and use shoes that have ample room for your toes. Do not wear shoes that crunch or squeeze your toes. Wearing a wider shoe for an average of two to four weeks usually provides sufficient treatment for fractured foot bones.