Rules of Speedball

Speedball is a game played with two 11-player teams, each of which attempt to advance a soccer ball down a field to score at a goal line. Players kick the ball — as in soccer, throw and catch the ball — as in basketball, and punt and pass — as in football. Football rules generally apply for passing the ball and scoring; basketball rules apply to fly or aerial balls; and soccer rules mostly apply when the ball is kicked on the ground.
The speedball goal is 8 feet tall and 6 feet wide. The penalty area is 5 yards in front of each goal and end line. Players can score three ways in speedball. A field goal gains three points and occurs when a ground ball is kicked under a goal¡¯s cross bar and between its uprights. A drop-kick gains two points. It occurs when the ball goes over the cross bar from outside of the penalty area. A touchdown gains one point and occurs when the ball is passed to a player who is behind the goal line. Rules in some programs also allow for one point to be scored on a penalty kick.
A rolling, bouncing or stationary ball is considered a ground ball. A ground ball cannot be touched with the hands or arms, but has to be kicked or bounced off of a player¡¯s body. When the ball goes airborne via a kick, it becomes a fly ball. A fly ball can be caught and then passed, punted, held or drop-kicked. It also can be played as an overhead dribble. That means the player can throw the ball and run to catch it before it hits the ground.
In some programs, teams can have more than one goaltender. In fact, some place no limit to the number of goaltenders a team is allowed. However, the goaltenders are subject to the same ground and fly rules as other players. Some programs allow goaltenders to take two steps with the ball, pick it up, bounce it, throw it, punt it or drop-kick it.
Fouls in speedball include pushing, tripping, traveling, handling a ground ball with the hands, charging, blocking, unnecessary roughness, drop-kicking in an attempt to make a goal or making a forward pass in an attempt to make a touchdown while inside the 5-yard penalty area. Other fouls include having the ball for more than five seconds during a free kick or more than 10 seconds on a penalty kick. When an attacking player commits a foul behind his opponent¡¯s goal line, the opposing team gains a free throw or kick on the goal. If the foul is incurred outside the penalty area, the free kick or throw is awarded at the location where the foul was committed.

Nutrition Facts on Boiled Sweet Potatoes

The sweet potatoes that appear on the Thanksgiving dinner table as candied yams or souffl¨¦s adorned with marshmallows are a staple food of the U.S. South. In 1991, the Center for Science in the Public Interest placed sweet potatoes at the top of its list of the 18 most nutritious vegetables, according to the Mississippi Sweet Potato Council. This nutrient-dense root scored 101 points more than the closest rival, the white potato. Sweet potatoes garnered this score for their complex carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals.
The majority of sweet potatoes come from nine states in the Southeast, California and New Jersey. The American sweet potato is not a true potato, according to the Mississippi Sweet Potato Council. It is the edible root of the plant Ipomoea batatas, which belongs to the morning glory family. Native Americans cultivated them initially. European settlers adopted them, and U.S. farmers have grown them in warm regions of the country since the 15th century. Sweet potato production in the United States increased during World War I to replace wheat flour. When the war ended, Tuskegee University scientist George Washington Carver promoted them as a cash crop for the south. He also developed more than 100 uses for sweet potatoes
The serving size for boiled sweet potatos is 1/2 cup. This amount has 125 calories, with 2.3 g of protein. The sweet potato’s carbohydrate content totals 29 g, or 10 percent of the Daily Value for a 2,000-calorie diet. The sugar content for this serving is 9 g. It is a good source of dietary fiber, with 4 g per serving, or 16 percent of the DV. The 1/2-cup serving has 0.23 g of fat, but no cholesterol.
A 1/2-cup serving of boiled sweet potato provides 25,814 international units of vitamin A, or 516 percent of the DV. The vitamin C content is 21 mg, 35 percent of the DV. Sweet potatoes also provide 14 percent of the DV for vitamin B-6 with 0.27 mg per serving. They are a good source of pantothenic acid, providing 0.95 mg, 10 percent of the DV. The thiamine content totals 0.09 mg or 6 percent of the DV. This serving provides less than 5 percent of the DV for other vitamins.
Manganese is the main mineral that this serving of sweet potatoes provides. It has 22 percent of the DV, or 0.43 mg. The potassium content is 11 percent, at 377 mg per serving. A serving of sweet potatoes contributes 6 percent of the DV for iron, but less than 5 percent of the DV for other minerals.

Is Milk Bad Before Aerobic Exercise?

Having milk before exercising has its ups and downs but is by no means a bad thing. Milk supplies multiple nutritious benefits that help with muscles, bones and cellular health. Many people can relate back to the “Got Milk?” slogans, connecting popular athletes and celebrities with drinking milk, and while it may not be the best drink during activity, it’s fine to have milk as a part of your healthy regimen.
Milk contains protein, which is what the body demands for repairing and rebuilding the muscles you damage during exercise. Milk also supplies simple carbohydrates that are beneficial for your glycogen energy storage, as well as a substantial amount of calcium, which maintains significant bone integrity and density. Combine the nutrition benefits of milk with resistance training, and your bones can have optimal integrity and density. While milk is most often recommended as a post-workout drink, the 2013 issue of the “Journal of Sports Sciences” reports that when consumed with a carbohydrate, a protein beverage may improve exercise performance.
The position statement of the American College of Sports Medicine, published in the 2009 issue of “Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,” recommends that any pre-workout snacks be low in fat, so skim milk should be chosen over whole milk. Skim milk supplies approximately 1 percent of your recommended fat intake, and can be broken down at a quicker rate. The tradeoff is 65 fewer calories per cup, which could pose a problem for people who want a higher calorie intake because they’re trying to increase size.
Milk is a heavy dairy liquid and may cause problems during moderate to intense exercise because it is digested slowly, containing high amounts of fat. This can result in nausea, cramping and vomiting. Melvin H. Williams, author of “Nutrition for Health, Fitness and Sport,” says 1 cup of milk also contains 6 percent of your recommended intake of sodium, which is approximately 151 milligrams, and can cause a increased sensation of thirst or dehydration during exercise. Lastly, milk coats the mouth and throat with a thin film — though it does not increase phlegm or mucus — that can cause a psychological effect that makes you cough or spit more.
Correct timing supplies the key to balancing the ups and downs of having milk before exercise. Williams suggests having dairy products such as milk three to four hours before physical activity. This allows for the milk to be fully digested, limits the onset of nausea and allows the proteins to utilized optimally. A sample pre-workout snack could be oatmeal with skim milk or skim milk with a banana.

What Are Examples of Antagonistic Muscle Exercises?

Exercises that target antagonistic muscle groups cause reciprocal inhibition by moving the same joint in opposite directions. Reciprocal inhibition forces one muscle group to relax while the other contracts. Contraction-inhibiting cellular waste builds up inside your muscles with each repetition during resistance exercise. Alternating between exercise sets that target antagonistic muscle groups back-to-back can help remove accumulating waste, which helps you complete the same number of repetitions for every set and avoid premature muscle failure.
Exercises that work the front and back of your torso target antagonistic muscle groups. Pushing against a horizontal load with push-ups and variations of the bench press works your pectoral muscles by abducting your shoulder blades, which spreads the scapula away from your spine. Exercises that involve pulling loads across a horizontal path, including chest-supported rows and dumbbell rows, target muscles throughout your back by adducting the scapula. Scapula adductions pull your shoulder blades in toward your spine.
Flexing and extending your elbows targets antagonistic muscle groups in your upper arms. Flexing your elbow brings your forearm toward your upper arm. Arm curl and pull-up exercises maximize biceps muscle activation by flexing your elbows against resistance. Elbow extension movements straighten your arms by activating the triceps on the back of your upper arm. Tricep extensions and dips involve straightening your arms against resistance and are among the best exercises for your triceps.
Antagonistic muscle exercises that work the front and back of your thighs move your knees in opposite directions. Your quadriceps respond to knee extension movements that straighten your legs and include leg extensions, squats, lunges and leg presses. Flexing your knees brings your calves toward your buttocks and activates the hamstring muscles that form the back of your thighs. Leg curls and glute-ham raises are examples of knee flexion exercises for the hamstrings.
Abdominal and lower back muscles respond to antagonistic exercises that move your spine and hips in opposite directions. Exercises that flex your spine, including crunches, target the rectus abdominis muscle. Spinal extension exercises, such as lumbar extensions and back hyperextensions, target the erector spinae muscle in your lower back. Hanging and lying leg raises are hip flexion exercises that target the rectus abdominis. Deadlifts and good mornings are hip extension exercises that activate lower back muscles.

Secrets to Sprinting Faster

The 100- and 200-meter sprints are two of the most highly anticipated events at any track meet. This includes the Olympics, where the winner of the 100-meter dash also is unofficially crowned “the world’s fastest human.” Sprinters spend many hours on conditioning and technique to reach their personal best times.
The start is one of the most important parts of the race. Top-level sprinters know that a great start does not guarantee a victory, but a poor start usually ensures that the runner won’t win. Push hard off your bent leg when you hear the starter’s pistol. Stay low through the first three strides. If you stand up too quickly, you won’t reach top speed efficiently.
Sprinters might feel fatigued during practice sessions or running race heats during a track meet. It’s not muscle fatigue: It’s because they are not taking in enough oxygen. Increase your breathing speed. Do this for 30 seconds at a time, breathing in and out as quickly as possible. Do this at the starting line as well, so you can trick your body into thinking you already are in motion.
Pump your arms with a forceful downward movement. When your left foot hits the ground, pump hard with your right arm. When your right foot hits the ground, pump hard with your left arm. This will help you to get a more explosive push off when your foot hits the ground.
Many runners are using their heels to provide the bulk of their running power or pushing back as they run. You must run on the balls of your feet and claw the ground with the spikes of your shoes with each stride. This will keep your feet moving quickly through the air and they will spend less time on the ground. This will help you move faster.
Build strength in your legs by doing weight-training exercises. The leg press, leg curls and lunges will help you build more strength. As you build more strength in your core muscles, hips, glutes and legs, you will have a more powerful stride. That will make you a faster runner who will be able to sustain his speed over a longer period.
Push yourself in every training session. Whether you are working on your start, acceleration, arm motion or finishing ability, don’t go through the motions. Find faster runners to train against so you have a chance to improve and sprint against the best competition.

What Are the Top 10 Most Physical Sports?

There are several variations of the top 10 most physical sports; each variation depends on the criteria used to compile the list. Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, also known as ESPN, put together a panel of experts that included sports scientists, academicians, a two-sport athlete and sports journalists to rate a comprehensive list of 60 sports using 10 required skills as their basis for comparison. Six of the skills relate to the physical aspects shared by the listed sports: endurance, strength, power, speed, agility and durability.
Boxing takes first place as the most demanding sport on ESPN¡¯s list. When two boxers enter a ring, they must be in excellent physical condition and have the stamina to withstand physical battering for four to 15 rounds. Boxers require agility and speed to avoid blows to the body and head that accumulates points in favor of opponents, and enough strength and power to make their own blows count.
Ice hockey involves high-speed skating and aggressive, often brutal, body contact. The physical intensity of the game limits each player¡¯s time on the ice to 30- to 80-second intervals followed by 4- to 5-minute rest periods in between. Ice hockey¡¯s fast-moving pace is not only physically demanding, it contributes to the game being considered one of the most dangerous sports, according to International Medical Insurance.
Football players hit and tackle one another with tremendous force as they advance across a 100-yard-long field to get a ball across the opposing team¡¯s goal line. This physically challenging sport requires endurance, strength, speed and agility.
Two teams with five players each, score points by throwing or shooting a ball through the opponent¡¯s basket. Speed is essential for players to move quickly across a basketball court while bouncing or dribbling a ball. Multiple split-second changes in direction require agility and stamina.
In a 2006 interview appearing in Kent State University¡¯s ¡°The Burr,¡± WWE wrestler Nick Nemeth defined the outcome of a wrestling match as predetermined, but stated the action leading up to the scripted conclusion is real, physically demanding and often painful. Wrestlers are well-coordinated athletes, in top physical condition and able to withstand moves, such as body slams, limb twisting, punches and being hit with tables and chairs.
The entire body is a tool in martial arts. Breaking bricks and boards with body parts, executing fast-paced moves involving kicks, punches and blocks while maintaining proper stance and balance, requires agility, flexibility, speed, endurance, strength and concentration. Martial arts are physically demanding, but determination outweighs athletic prowess.
An exhausting, fast-paced, hard-hitting tennis match with players racing back and forth to hit the ball before it strikes the ground or after one bounce, can last from 35 to 40 minutes or five to six hours. Players must have strong arm and thigh muscles, tremendous stamina, endurance, strength, power, speed and agility to keep up with the grueling pace.
Gymnastics involves tumbling and acrobatics, routines performed on bars, wooden beams, with balls and hoops or on trampolines. Participants in gymnastics require strength, rhythm, balance, flexibility and agility to perform and compete in this sport.
Porter W. Johnson, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, estimates a pitcher throws a baseball 30 to 45 meters per second — 67 to 100 miles per hour. A baseball hit by a batter travels up to 134 miles per hour, and a batter runs bases about 22 miles per hour. These three physical characteristics of baseball, pitching, hitting and running, require endurance, speed, strength and stamina.
A soccer game is played for 90 minutes by two teams of 11 players. Using only heads and feet to maneuver the ball, team members aim to get the soccer ball into their opponent¡¯s goal. This sport requires participants to possess the physical attributes of endurance, speed and agility.

The Differences Between Cheerleading & Gymnastics

While cheerleading and gymnastics have tumbling in common, the way they use cartwheels and more complicated moves is vastly different. Both are highly athletic activities that require a great deal of physical fitness and expertise. Cheerleading and gymnastics also combine execution of powerful, awe-inspiring moves with grace and finesse. While these two sports could be considered close relatives, the differences make it clear that they stand alone as their own entities.
Gymnasts compete on four different apparatus. They must learn to do tumbling, jumping and dance moves on the floor and the balance beam. The vault requires gymnasts to do explosive skills off of a spring board and over the vault. The uneven parallel bars require swinging, flipping, and release moves. While a gymnast may excel in one of these areas, they must learn to compete on all four apparatus in order to be successful.
Cheerleaders do not complete on different apparatus. They do all of their skills on the flat surface of a competition mat, athletic court or the track in front of a field, such as a football field. Cheerleaders do incorporate tumbling and jumps that are very similar to those used in gymnastics; however, that is where the similarities end. Cheerleaders use their voices along with choreographed motions in an attempt to get the crowd to cheer along with a game. Cheerleading also involves stunting, where either one cheerleader or a group of cheerleaders lifts or tosses another cheerleader into the air.
Cheerleaders and gymnasts hold different roles in their respective sports. Gymnasts play a primary role, with the attention solely on their performance, during competitions. Cheerleaders sometimes play a primary role, such as when they are competing, and sometimes play a secondary role, when they are supporting another sports team by cheering them on to victory. When cheering for a sports team, cheerleaders need to consider timing for cheers and stunts so as to not distract from the game. Gymnasts do not need to do this because their performance is the main event.
While both cheerleaders and gymnasts benefit from the support of a tightly knit team, gymnastics is more of an individual sport. When performing, one gymnast takes her turn alone. While cheerleading does sometimes have some solo events in competitions, it is more of a team sport. A cheerleading squad performs together as a unit at games and competitions. Therefore in cheerleading, synchronization and uniformity are much more important than in gymnastics.

What Are the Highest Scored Football Games?

Big numbers have lit up football scoreboards throughout the sport¡¯s history. From lopsided blowouts to high-scoring shootouts, it¡¯s clear not every game can be a defensive, field position battle. Here is a look at some of the highest-scoring games in the history of the gridiron, from the pros to high school.
On Nov. 27, 1966, the Washington Redskins and New York Giants put up 113 points in a shootout that ended in a 72-41 Washington victory. The teams combined to score 16 touchdowns, nine of which came from beyond 30 yards. The game¡¯s only field goal came in the closing seconds of the game, when Charlie Gogolak, who had missed two kicks the previous week and had an extra point blocked earlier in the game, put the finishing touches on Washington’s 31-point victory with a 23-yard chip shot. After the game, Washington¡¯s head coach Otto Graham joked, ¡°It was a great defensive battle.¡±
On Nov. 10, 2007, the U.S. Naval Academy and the University of North Texas posted 136 points in Navy¡¯s 74-62 win. A month earlier, Boise State University and the University of Nevada, Reno also scored 136 points, but it took four overtimes for the Broncos to seal their 69-67 win. Two weeks prior to that game, Weber State University and Portland State University set the all-time record for total points scored, with Weber State winning 73-68. On the same day as the Navy and North Texas matchup, Hartwick College beat Utica College 72-70 in four overtimes to set the NCAA’s all-division record for most points scored in a game. The Division II record is held by North Park University and North Central College. North Park steamrolled North Central by a score of 104-32 in their 1968 match-up.
The NCAA did not start keeping official records until 1937. Otherwise, Georgia Tech¡¯s dismantling of Cumberland College would be hailed as the biggest blowout in college football history. Georgia Tech scored 63 points in each of the game’s first two quarters on its way to a staggering 222-0 shutout. Astonishingly, neither team recorded a first down in the game, as Georgia Tech scored on one of the first three plays of every drive and Cumberland lost 28 yards in total.
The 222-point tally scored by Georgia Tech falls short of what Haven High School managed to do in 1927. The Kansas powerhouse hung 256 on in-state rival Sylvia High School. Elvin McCoy scored 13 of the team¡¯s 38 touchdowns and kicked 12 extra points, accounting for 90 points. In fairness to Sylvia, Haven outscored its other seven opponents 323-0 that year and its narrowest margin of victory was 27 points.

What to Do for Sore Feet After a Six-Mile Walk

Developing sore feet after a long walk is not uncommon. Your feet take a lot of punishment throughout the day, especially if you are active and walk for long distances. It is important that you wear proper walking shoes and keep your feet as comfortable as possible during physical activity. If and when you do develop soreness in your feet, you should take proper care of them to avoid any long-term ailments.
A long walk can cause your feet to become sore, especially if you are new to physical activity. Don’t get discouraged, though. Some soreness is normal after being on your feet for long durations. Your muscles, ligaments and joints must first become accustomed to regular physical activity to reduce and eventually eliminate the intensity of soreness that follows a long walk. Soreness can develop from a few hours up to several days after your walk. In most cases, basic self-care treatments can help relieve the soreness.
Keeping weight off your feet after a long walk should be a top priority. It stands to reason that soreness will subside more quickly when your feet don’t have to support your full body weight. If your typical day requires you to stand on your feet for considerable durations, try to schedule your long walks at times that allow you to rest your feet for at least 24 hours afterward. Limit any standing, long walking or climbing stairs when recovering from a long walk. If possible, you should also avoid wearing shoes during your resting period. This frees the feet from any pressure that shoes can add.
Long walks can sometimes cause your feet to swell, in addition to becoming sore. If the swelling is painful, place an ice pack from the freezer on the affected area of your foot for 15 to 20 minutes, three times a day. Some prefer to use heat instead to help relieve soreness. Soak your feet in hot water for 20 minutes after your long walk. Foot baths can be enhanced with various oils designed to stimulate blood circulation and to relieve soreness. Light massage may also help relieve soreness, as long as the massage is not painful.
Soreness is partially the result of consistent pressure pushing down onto your feet from walking, especially on the heel. The pressure can often cause a pounding feeling in your feet that is exacerbated if you wear tight shoes. To help relieve this pressure, you should elevate your feet several times a day for at least 15 minutes. Elevating the feet and keeping them at an angle at which the feet are higher than your pelvis allows for the blood to flow freely through your feet and legs, which eases the built-up pressure.

How Do Football Players Recover After Games?

Football is an exhilarating sport for spectators and players alike. The physical nature of the game requires players to keep their bodies in top shape to avoid injuries. Even with extensive training and preparation, players are left physically exhausted at the end of a game. Individuals must take the proper steps toward replenishing and repairing their bodies to recover their strength and stamina for the next performance.
During the course of a football game, players lose valuable fluids that keep their bodies functioning properly. The physical exertion required to perform on the field often leaves players dehydrated at the end of a game. It is important that individuals replace the fluids lost during a game by drinking plenty of water in the hours immediately following a game. In addition, essential electrolytes are also depleted and must be replaced to help retain fluids in the body. Various sports drinks include electrolytes in their formula and are a convenient way to replenish these nutrients.
Football players burn a massive amount of calories through physical exertion during a game. Players should eat meals high in protein and complex carbohydrates after the game. The valuable nutrients and calories found in foods that include lean meat, nuts, fish and whole grains give the body the building blocks it needs to repair damaged muscle tissue and replace lost nutrients.
Even the best conditioned athletes suffer form muscle strains due to overuse during a football game. Strained muscles should be treated by applying ice for 20 minutes every hour while awake. Ice helps to reduce pain and swelling associated with muscle strains. Once the swelling has subsided, heat may be used to loosen tight muscles and reduce pain. Never apply ice or heat directly to bare skin; always place a cloth or towel between the skin and application. Aspirin and ibuprofen are effective anti-inflammatory agents and should be taken as needed after a game.
It is essential for players recovering from a football game to get adequate rest. Avoid strenuous activities, especially those that use muscle groups that are sore. Getting a good night’s sleep is an important part of recovery for football players. During the night, growth hormone is released from the pituitary gland in the brain. Growth hormone stimulates muscle growth and repair, and helps athletes recover from a tough game. Adequate sleep also helps athletes recover mental sharpness that diminishes with fatigue.