Water polo looks graceful above water, but under the surface, it is demanding. You kick continuously to stay afloat and propel yourself in the air. Competitors push and pull underwater, usually out of the view of referees.
Water polo is a form of aerobic exercise that takes exceptional conditioning and strength. You build heart and lung strength playing water polo, and use all your major muscle groups. Aerobic exercises burn calories because you engage your large muscles to move, and use energy to sustain motion. In addition, your cardiovascular system and breathing increase to provide energy, allowing you to exercise longer and burn more calories. In water polo, you race from one end of the pool to the other, and then summon the strength to intercept the ball or fling it, full force, at the goal.
The number of calories you burn playing water polo depends on how much you weigh and how long you participate. NutriStrategy’s online calorie-use chart indicates that you burn 590 calories per hour if you weigh 130 pounds. You burn 704 calories an hour if you weigh 155 pounds, and 817 calories if you weigh 180.
Water polo matches have four quarters or periods, each lasting eight minutes. You participate in 32 minutes of intense action during a match, and burn calories during warm-ups and practice. Water polo burns about the same number of calories as fast freestyle swimming or doing the breaststroke.
The Olympics were first officially inaugurated in Greece in 776 B.C. While there were a limited number of sports, athletes participated in a variety of training methods, from simply practicing their sport, to the legendary Milo of Croton lifting a calf overhead every day until it became a full-grown bull. While actual records of their training are somewhat limited, researchers have some knowledge of how these early Greek athletes trained.
Athletes generally trained in a specific gymnasium for their sport called a xystos, where they were frequently coached by former champions. The vast majority of their training consisted of practicing the skills of their sport. In boxing and wrestling, neither of which featured weight classes, much of the time was spent sparring and grappling. In pankration, a fighting contest in which only biting and eye gouging were prohibited, much time was spent sparring, but in a more gentle manner.
One of the ways athletes stayed in condition was through daily life. As everything was done by hand, the amount of physical work that was accomplished by an athlete in addition to his training generally served as an excellent off-season conditioning program. Many athletes who competed in various events such as any of the fighting contests, races including the chariot race, or the javelin throw, were active members of the military and much of their training was combative in nature. The hoplitodromos was a foot race in which the contests wore armor consisting of a helmet, greaves and a shield.
In the course of training, while an athlete would spend a great deal of time training the body, usually through bodyweight exercises and acrobatics, time was also spent training the mind. A palaestra, or ancient Greek wrestling school, in addition to rooms featuring equipment like heavy bags, also featured rooms for education where the youths were taught the Greek ideals as part of an all-around education. The concept of “mind, body and spirit” was not just a slogan to the ancient athletes, it was a way of life.
Any specific training that athletes wished needed to be performed on their own. Given the lack of full-time coaching and the need to work at home, many athletes simply ran for conditioning work or performed bodyweight exercises at home to supplement the work they often did as soldiers. The grueling amounts of physical labor over the course of the day that were required outstrip many conditioning programs in use today. Stonecutters were notorious for their physical strength and this served them well in grappling events. Messengers did better in the races. So even the ancient athletes understood the need for cross training as well as specific training, but little record remains of the specifics.
Youth football has become big business, and adults often feel the push-and-pull of the process, suggests Garrett Kramer, founder of a New Jersey athletic consulting business. Parents want to make the right choices and create low-stress, productive athletic journeys for their children. Kramer says any new experience — including athletics — can play a productive and empowering role in a child¡¯s development. However, both positive and negative factors come into play with football.
Jon Butler, executive director of Pop Warner, a nonprofit organization that encourages football, cheer and dance participation, says team sports build remarkable bonds. Contact sports like football build even stronger bonds than non-contact sports, he believes, as teammates literally ¡°have one another¡¯s backs.¡± Football requires each player to execute his assignment on every play to help bring the team to victory. Butler says this ingrained teamwork may be why the greatest correlation among Fortune 500 CEOs is their prior participation in team sports.
Boys and girls who play youth football engage in hours of exercise. Pop Warner leagues require 20 hours of conditioning with no pads and no contact, according to the league’s website. Football involves plenty of running and helps combat rising childhood obesity levels by luring young people from their television sets and video games.
Children who play football learn discipline, suggests Steve Siebold, mental toughness coach and former professional athlete. They can¡¯t be heroes on the field all the time; they learn it¡¯s not about who gets the credit, but rather about getting the job done for the team. The sport also requires children to deal with conflict resolution. If a young athlete is fouled or tackled, he learns to take it in stride. Overcoming obstacles on the football field can prepare children for success later in life.
Boys and girls who participate in youth football learn the sport’s fundamentals. There is great emphasis in youth football on learning proper technique and using proper drills, according to Butler. At the youngest levels, a coach is on the field at all times, instructing players. Leagues typically allow no tryouts and no cutting; every child gets a chance to play. It is mandatory for each athlete to participate in every game.
Although many youth-football injuries result in sprains and strains, the spotlight on concussions on the playing field has caused some young athletes to reconsider the game. The American Academy of Neurology¡¯s recommendation that a qualified athletic trainer stays on the field is a step in the right direction, contends attorney Tom Gowen, arbitrator for the Eastern Pennsylvania Youth Soccer Association. Gowen says Americans should find other ways to keep players of all ages safe. Equipment and helmet improvements, along with drill modifications, are other suggestions.
The league’s organization and quality play an important role in the outcome of kids’ football experience. However, parents run many youth leagues, and though some of these coaches played football and teach proper technique and safety, others are novices and rely on TV sports channels to guide their decisions. This puts kids at risk on the football field. Parents who want to live vicariously through their children sometimes end up coaching — even when they are not qualified to do so.
Gowen believes youth football is getting more violent due to increased training, specialization and today¡¯s faster, stronger players. Young people typically aren¡¯t naturally aggressive before they reach adolescence. Pennsylvania football parent Tim O¡¯Brien says this gives the naturally rougher kids an advantage on the football field, and often causes slow-developing children to lose interest before they grasp the game’s fundamentals.
The benefits of regular physical activity are hard to dispute. It is not only one of the most effective ways to control your weight, but it also is a way to prevent many chronic health problems. With the rise of childhood obesity, exercise has become even more vital for maintaining a healthy lifestyle for teenagers. As with adults, the amount of exercise needed is pretty much the same across the board.
Current guidelines suggest that teens get at least 60 minutes of physical activity most days of the week, notes the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. These 60 minutes, however, needn¡¯t be completed in a solid hour of exercise. It can be broken up into two 30-minute sessions, three 20-minute sessions or even six 10-minute sessions. So, if a 13-year-old enjoys jogging, for example, spending 20 to 30 minutes on a treadmill is completely fine, especially if other physical activities are part of his daily routine.
Teenagers new to exercise, on the other hand, may not want to spend as much time running on a treadmill. Even though the goal is 60 minutes of physical activity a day, it¡¯s best to start slow and gradually increase the duration as well as the intensity of the exercise. Walking for 50 minutes and then jogging for the last 10 might be a better option at first. As fitness levels improve, transition to 45 minutes walking and 15 minutes jogging.
It¡¯s also important to note that teens ¡ª as well as adults, for that matter ¡ª can overexercise. Your body often gives you physical cues to tell you when you¡¯re pushing yourself too hard, so pay attention to these signs. If you feel pain, weakness or fatigue, get off the treadmill. Pushing your body beyond its physical capacity can lead to sprains, strains and other overuse injuries.
Although running on a treadmill is an effective way to stay fit, it¡¯s not the only option out there. Everyone, including teenagers, has their own set of interests, particularly when it comes to athletics. You don¡¯t need to start running on a treadmill to reach the recommended 60 minutes of physical activity. Biking, walking, hiking, dancing, swimming, cross-country skiing and taking part in a competitive sport, like tennis, soccer, volleyball, basketball, football, hockey and rugby, can all be used to reach the goal for daily exercise.
The Nike Gridiron workout program, designed for football players, is referred to as the SPARQ training program. Developed by Chris Carlisle, strength and conditioning coach for the Seattle Seahawks, the program consists of detailed workouts broken down into different phases. The year-round program is designed to increase your overall performance as a football player, regardless of your ability or level. With the potential for serious injury, always consult your physician before starting a training program.
The three basic phases of the Nike Gridiron and SPARQ training program are the pre-season, in-season and off-season workouts. Each phase has a specific function to maximize performance while improving strength and football ability. Pre-season programs are designed to prepare you for the upcoming season while the in-season program continues the progress from the pre-season workouts while allowing your body to recover from the games. Off-season workouts are designed to repair your body while working on specific skills.
Each training workout consists of certain exercises, drills and movements based on the goal of the workout. Every workout starts with a warm-up that typically features dynamic exercises to prepare your body and muscles for action. On-field drills utilize explosive movements to improve athleticism and weight-lifting exercises build strength, speed and power. According to the Nike Football website, during pre-season training, workouts consist of three sets of clean pulls, squats and bench press along with auxiliary lifts and range of motion exercises. In-season workouts, however, utilize circuits to increase the intensity of the workout through performing a specific number of repetitions and sets based on time.
Pre-season and off-season workouts will occur more frequently than in-season workouts. You will perform six workouts total during the pre-season schedule but will train only two times per week during the in-season program. Most of the pre-season workouts are two-a-days, meaning you will have two workouts in one day. In-season training schedules will typically include the first workout on Sunday or Monday with the second workout on Tuesday or Wednesday allowing your body to recover before game day, according to Nike Football.
The Nike Gridiron and SPARQ training program features a workout log to record sets, repetitions, weight and other workout information. Use this log to track your overall performance and improvements. Nike recommends combining the workout program with proper nutrition to achieve the best training results. With proper nutrition, you will have the energy to perform at a high level during the workout and the essential nutrients required to recover between workouts.
Consider your fitness level, athletic ability and football position before starting the Nike Gridiron and SPARQ workout program. The programs are designed to accommodate every football position and ability. For example, combine the offensive and defensive lineman, linebackers and tights, and skill players such as quarterbacks, running backs, wide receivers and defensive backs. You can also divide the workout by ability level, such as varsity, junior varsity and freshman.
Selecting a properly fitting set of cleats can help you avoid injury on the soccer field and may, according to the Hughston Clinic, an orthopaedic clinic with offices in Georgia and Alabama. A well-fitting shoe can also improve your performance, according to the clinic. No matter what type of soccer cleat you choose, you’ll need to know the best way to lace them up. Proper lacing can provide you with added stability and support when you’re out on the field.
Position your soccer cleat on a table in front of you or on your lap. Point the toe end of your cleat toward your body.
Place each end of the lace through the top of each of the lowest holes of your soccer cleat, keeping the lace flat. Pull on whichever end of the lace that’s necessary to even the lace out.
Hold on to the end of the left lace, while the soccer cleat is facing you, and bring it across and up to the second hole from the top on the right side of the shoe. Push that end of the lace through the hole from the bottom and out the top. Leave that end of your lace hanging there.
Grab the other end of your shoelace — the one on the right side of the cleat –and run it under the opposite side of the lace that you just finished with, then up through the second hole from the bottom on the left side of your shoe.
Continue with the same end of your shoelace you were just using, running it back across to the right side of your soccer cleat, crossing over the top of the other end of the lace. Push it through the top and down into the second hole from the bottom on that side. Bring it back across to the left side of the cleat, running it under the other end of the lace again, and run it up through the third hole from the bottom. Keep doing this with the same end of your shoe lace until you work your way up to the second hole from the top on the left side.
Run this same end of your shoelace through the bottom and up through the top of the second hole from the top on the left side of your soccer cleat, just opposite the other end of your shoelace. At this point, both ends of your lace should be hanging out the top of the second holes from the top, with only the cleat’s top holes left empty.
Bring each side of the lace through the top of the holes immediately above it. Adjust your lace to make both ends even.
Tie your soccer cleat as your normally would, making the shoes as tight as you can without making them uncomfortable. Double-tie your laces tightly for added safety.
Wrap extra long laces around the bottom of your soccer cleat before you tie them, suggests Serious Goalkeeping, a goalkeeper school in Canada. To do this, bring each side of your lace around the bottom of your soccer cleat, bringing both ends up to the top and pulling to make the laces as snug as you can, then tie your shoe like normal.
Soccer by nature is a low-scoring sport involving lengthy battles for the ball and field position. Those low scores make defenders very important to the success of a soccer team. Playing defense is not the most glamorous job and defenders rarely score or make the headlines, but often they are the difference between winning and losing. By focusing on fundamentals and learning some tricks of the trade, you can become a better soccer defender.
Study film and tape of offensive players to get an idea of what moves you will see. Even if the film is tape of professional leagues and not someone you will face in real life, you can better see how to slow down and stop an offensive player and then implement those strategies.
Watch the ball and your opponent’s waist so you know where he is going at all times. By focusing on the ball and his waist, you will not be fooled by any trick moves or hesitation dribbles he might use.
Take angles to cut off the offense and stay in front of your opponent. Taking angles means that you run to a spot to cut off the ball instead of chasing the player in a straight line, while positioning yourself between your opponent and the goal at all times.
Keep your balance, stay on your feet and learn to play at different speeds. US Youth Soccer notes that staying balanced and learning to slow down from a sprint are important parts of stopping the ball. Teach PE adds that staying on your feet and using controlled aggression while trying to tackle is important. Tackling refers to trying to steal or tackle away the ball from your opponent. Leaving your feet or being too aggressive can give her a clear path to the goal.
.888 concussions occurred over a 3 season period among 17549 high school and collegiate level football players according to a study. Concussions occur far too regularly on youth, high school, collegiate and professional fields every year.
Much of the effectiveness of the helmet is linked to coach and player education. The helmet itself must manage the impact energies when helmet to helmet contact or helmet to surface contact occurs according to researchers at Virginia Tech University.
This is significant considering the aggression displayed on the field and the amount of concussions and head injuries reported as a result. The Riddell 360, Rawlings Quantum Plus, Xenith X2 and Riddell Revolution Speed score best for helmets reducing concussion risk in comparison to other helmets when evaluated using the STAR rating system.
Teach players to keep their head and eyes up when they hit. Young players especially need reminding multiple times a day– never lower their head when tackling.
Teach and reteach youth and high school players in proper use. Never use a football helmet without the NOCSAE, National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment, warning label on the exterior.
The National Federation of State High School Associations has written a set of rules applicable to high school baseball played in the United States. While each state may have its own set of rules that can result in slight differentiation, high school baseball played anywhere across the nation uses similar rules and regulations.
An official high school baseball game is seven innings long. If the home team is ahead after the visiting team has batted in the top of the seventh, it does not have to bat. A game is official after four innings. If the two teams have played four innings and then the game must be stopped because of a weather interruption — rain, snow or lightning — the game is considered official. However, if the game has to be stopped because of darkness, the two teams can agree to pick up the game from where it left off if the subject had been discussed prior to the start.
A designated hitter may be used in all games in high school baseball. Unlike professional baseball, the designated hitter does not have to be used in place of the pitcher. The high school baseball head coach can choose to use the designated hitter for the weakest hitter in the lineup. The lineup does not have to include a designated hitter. If the head coach chooses to use all his fielders in the batting lineup, that is OK. However, if the coach wants to use a designated hitter later in the game, he does not have that option. The designated hitter must be used from the start of the game if the coach wants to employ it anytime in the game.
The base runner may not get in the way of or touch any fielder involved in making a play. If the fielder is standing in the baseline, the base runner may think he is entitled to run over the fielder because he is in the runner’s direct path to the base. However, the runner must alter his path to the base. If the runner is judged to have interfered with the fielder, the runner is out and all other runners must go back to their original base.
If you notice red bumps around your hairline, you may be dealing with an acne condition that is specific to the hair and scalp. Acne located around the hairline can itch and produce dry, flaky skin in the affected area. Ridding your hairline of the red bumps requires acne remedies that treat the hair and skin alike.
Also known as scalp folliculitis, the red bumps or pustules are actually an inflammatory disorder that develops around your hairline. According to DermNet NZ, the condition is often worse around the frontal portion of the hairline. In some cases, crust may form around the red bumps, especially with constant scratching that may cause the pustules to break open and ooze sebum.
Red bumps around the hairline are often the result of excess oils produced by the scalp. These scalp oils are also responsible for any dryness that develops around the acne. According to the Acne Resource Center Online, causes for the condition can also be hygienic in nature. Improper cleaning around the hairline where dirt and oils collect can result in clogged hair follicles or fungal growth. Acne-fighting treatments used regularly can help resolve the condition.
Shampooing daily with a dandruff shampoo that contains ketoconazole can help cleanse the scalp and hair of excessive oils. According to Acne.org, the use of a cleanser that contains salicylic acid will combat the buildup of oils, debris and dead skin cells in the area around the hairline, resulting in less breakouts. In cases of severe itching, antihistamines or steroid creams can calm the skin and relieve the itch.
Scratching itchy red bumps around your hairline can lead to infection. When you scratch the red bumps, your fingernails can break the skin or cause minor fissures. These open wounds in the skin are prone to bacterial infection. If you notice the red bumps around your hairline becoming severely swollen, painful or discolored, consult your physician. He may recommend the use of a topical or oral antibiotic to resolve the problem.
The red bumps that develop with scalp folliculitis are quite contagious when bacteria or fungus is the cause. In such cases, the PennState Milton S. Hershey Medical Center explains that sharing razors or other personal hygiene items can transfer the condition from one person to another. It is also a good idea to stay out of hot tubs if you have the condition. Hot water is a breeding ground for bacteria and fungus.